“Building Services” shall mean the provision of Services in a building, which make the building functional, comfortable, safe, secure, and environmentally friendly. Services include, but are not limited to:
Harnessing of Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services.
Applicable to building services are Electricity generation from Photo Voltaic panels and direct heating of water or air using sunlight.
Day lighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings. This can save energy in place of using artificial lighting, which represents a major component of energy consumption in buildings. Proper lighting can enhance task performance, improve the appearance of an area, or have positive psychological effects on occupants.
Lighting or illumination is the deliberate use of light to achieve a practical or aesthetic effect. Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps and light fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Indoor lighting is usually accomplished using light fixtures, and is a key part of interior design. Lighting can also be an intrinsic component of landscape projects.
Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning
Heating – Hot water supplied by boilers and pumps via piping systems – feeding radiators, heaters, air conditioning systems (HVAC) and fan coil units (FCU’s)
Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building. This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building. The heat can be transferred by convection, conduction, or radiation. Heating can also be via air to air heat pumps particularly in areas which require both heating and cooling at different times of the year.
Ventilation is the intentional introduction of outside air into a space. Ventilation is mainly used to provide oxygen for the people and control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification when the introduction of outside air will help to achieve desired indoor psychrometric conditions.
The intentional introduction of outside air can be categorized as either mechanical ventilation, or natural ventilation. Mechanical ventilation uses fans to drive the flow of outside air into a building. This may be accomplished by pressurization (in the case of positively pressurized buildings), or by depressurization (in the case of exhaust ventilation systems). Many mechanically ventilated buildings use a combination of both, with the ventilation being integrated into the HVAC system. Natural ventilation is the intentional passive flow of outside air into a building through planned openings. Natural ventilation does not require mechanical systems to move outside air, it relies entirely on passive physical phenomena.
Air conditioning (often referred to as AC) is the process of controlling certain parameter of air in an enclosed space. Some of the parameters controlled are Temperature, Humidity, Indoor Air Quality, air velocity etc. Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. In the most general sense, air conditioning can refer to any system that modifies the condition of air (heating, cooling, de-humidification, humidification. cleaning, ventilation, or air movement). In common usage, though, “air conditioning” refers to systems which cool air. In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning is referred to as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC – as opposed to AC).
is any system that transmits fluids for a wide range of applications. Heating and cooling, waste removal, and potable water delivery are among the most common uses for plumbing; however, plumbing is not limited to these applications. Plumbing utilizes pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks, and other components to transmit fluids.
The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:
- Cold and hot water supply
- Sewer and Wastewater piping system
- Fuel gas piping
Raw water is natural water found in the environment. and has not been treated, nor have any minerals, ions, particles or living organisms removed. Raw water may be obtained from many sources such as collected rainwater, ground water, water from infiltration wells, and water from bodies like lakes and rivers.
Water treatment is the process of removing undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, suspended solids, dissolved solids, colour, odour, and gases from the water. The objective is to produce water fit for a specific purpose
Raw Water treatment plants produce drinking water for public consumption or “industrial water” for manufacturing or other processes. Treatment often involves some combinations of: Filtering out sediment and disease-causing organisms. Chemical treatment to remove excess minerals and other contaminants.
Effluent is water that has been used by humans or in the industry. Effluent can originate from a combination of domestic, industrial, commercial, or agricultural activities.
Municipal wastewater is usually conveyed in a combined sewer or sanitary sewer, and treated at an effluent treatment plant. Effluent generated in areas without access to centralized sewer systems rely on on-site effluent treatment systems. These typically comprise a septic tank, drain field and a soakage arrangement. Larger installations may use an on-site treatment unit.
Effluents contain a number of pollutants and contaminants, including:
- Plant nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium);
- Pathogenic microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths);
- Heavy metals (e.g. cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc);
- Organic pollutants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides); and biodegradable organics (BOD, COD);
- Micro-pollutants (e.g. medicines, cosmetics, cleaning agents).
Treated water is water that has been made safe for reuse or discharge to the environment, after having been chemically or biological polluted. Treated water has great importance in irrigation and in some industrial applications. as well as safe drinking
Storm water management and disposal
Vertical & Horizontal transportation
A conveyor transport device for carrying people between places of a building on the same floor. Travelators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where long walking distances are present. Principal areas of usage airports, transit systems, convention centres.
An escalator is a type of vertical transportation in the form of a moving staircase – a conveyor transport device for carrying people between floors of a building. The device consists of a motor-driven chain of individually linked steps that move up or down on tracks, allowing the step treads to remain horizontal. Escalators are used around the world to move pedestrian traffic in places where elevators would be impractical. Principal areas of usage include department stores, shopping malls, airports, transit systems, convention centres, hotels, arenas, stadiums, and public buildings.
Escalators have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same physical space as a staircase. They have no waiting interval (except during very heavy traffic), they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and they may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. A non-functioning escalator can function as a normal staircase, whereas many other conveyances become useless when they break down.
A paternoster is a passenger elevator which consists of a chain of open compartments (each usually designed for two persons) that move slowly in a loop up and down inside a building without stopping. Passengers can step on or off at any floor they like.
The construction of new paternosters was stopped in the mid-1970s due to safety concerns. The only paternoster in Sri Lanka is in the CEB Head Office.
Refrigeration is a process of moving heat from one location to another in controlled conditions. The work of heat transport is traditionally driven by mechanical work, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means.
Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to:
- Industrial freezers
Communication networks consist of following categories:
- Voice communication – Telephones
- Piped Music
- Voice Evacuation systems
- TV distribution
Voice communication or Telephone Network provides inter communication within the building and external communications with the rest of the world. This is achieved by analogue, digital or VOIP systems. VOIP is getting popular and analogue systems are almost not used.
Piped Music – It has got its name because in very olden days music is pumped through pipes to remote places. This system was commonly used in air lines. In modern times music is distributed by electrical means, from the generation point -CD player, or a tuner. Now it is shifting to music servers and distributed through the optical fibre to the area and smart amplifiers will provide the last segment.
Voice Evacuation Systems- These systems are used mainly with fire alarm systems to evacuate
people during a fire.
TV Distribution – within a building is carried out by several means.
- It could be send through a RF cable. Tuner of the TV can tune in the program eliminating the use of the set-top box.
- It could be send at IF level to a set top-box which will be connected to the TV.
- It could be sent through the IP network either through Optic fibre or network cable to a set top-box which will be connected to the TV.
IT network consist of the following categories:
- Wired Data Network – which serves the static work stations like PC, POS terminals etc.
- Wireless data provision network – WiFi – Which serves mobile data equipment.
Building Management Systems
Security and Alarm Systems
Security is the degree of resistance to, or protection from, harm. It applies to any vulnerable and/or valuable asset, such as a person, dwelling, community, item, nation, or organization.
Security provides “a form of protection where a separation is created between the assets and the threat.” These separations are generically called “controls,” and sometimes include changes to the asset or the threat.
Visual security monitoring systems includes CCTV camera systems, which will not only show and record the live picture of the area that the camera is monitoring but gives an alarm when a intrusion happens to the monitored area.
An alarm device or system of alarm devices gives an audible, visual, or other form of alarm signal about a problem or condition. Alarm devices are often outfitted with a siren.
Alarm devices include:
- Burglar alarms, designed to warn of burglaries; this is often a silent alarm: the police or guards are warned without indication to the burglar, which increases the chances of catching him or her.
Alarms have the capability of causing a fight-or-flight response in humans; a person under this mindset will panic and either flees the perceived danger or attempt to eliminate it, often ignoring rational thought in either case.
Fire Detection and Protection Systems
A flame detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to the presence of a flame or fire.
Smoke detector is considered the earliest possible detection system and detects the most dangerous problem for human safety during a fire: the combustion gases. The smoke detection is highly recommended for public buildings, offices, hotels, hospitals and residential houses. However smoke detection is not recommended in places with strong air movements or excessive dust.
Gas detectors- Although they cannot be classified as fire detectors, they can be an effective complement in the fire risk management. In particular for the detection of combustible gases. The detectors of toxic gases (CO, CO2) contribute to the people safety
Heat detector is a sensor designed to detect and respond to variation in temperature. Considered the less precocious of all, the heat detector has the disadvantage of being the last phenomenon caused by a fire: heat. However, it has the advantage of being able to be installed in dusty areas, or places with heavy air movement. Heat detectors can also be used in location where production of smoke may be a part of the normal operation.
Responses to a detected input on the installation often varies, but can include sounding an alarm, deactivating a fuel line, and activating a fire suppression system, shutting down ‘Fire Dampers’ in an AC system, etc.The fire detection, is used for monitoring of spaces to gather information about a possible fire condition at the earliest possible stage . This will facilitate the means of giving alarm which would activate action to fight the fire.
Three main categories are Flame detection, Smoke detection, and Heat detection
Active Fire Protection (AFP) Are means and systems provided to fight a fire in an eventuality of a fire. These can be automatic systems such as sprinklers or fire suppression systems and systems which require manual intervention such as fire extinguishers, hose reels, hydrant valves.
Passive Fire Protection (PFP) is an integral component of the three components of structural fire protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread, through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors etc. Passive Fire Protection also provides containment of areas and escape routes for evacuation.
Lightning Protection systems
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs during an electrical storm. What is applicable to Building services trade is the discharge between a cloud and the ground. The charged regions in the atmosphere temporarily equalize themselves through this discharge referred to as a strike when it hits an object on the ground. Lightning causes light in the form of plasma, and sound in the form of thunder. Lightning may be seen and not heard when it occurs at a distance too great for the sound to carry as far as the light from the strike.
To prevent strike being hit at a building Lightning Protection systems are used. The oldest and the proven system is “Faraday Cage”.
Vehicle park management systems
Building Services Engineers:Building services engineers work closely with other construction professionals such as architects, structural engineers, and quantity surveyors. They ensure that a building is functional and safe, and play a significant role on the sustainability and energy demand of a building. New roles are emerging, within building services engineering, such as renewable energy, sustainability, low carbon foot print, and energy management. With buildings accounting for around 50% of all carbon emissions, building services engineers play a significant role in combating climate change. As such, a typical building services engineer has a wide-ranging career path:
Design : Designing and specifying the requirements for building services for residential and commercial developments.
Design Management : Design management is the business side of design, which aims to create the right environment to control and support a culture of creativity and innovation, and to embrace the iterative nature of design involving the many disciplines that, collectively, will deliver design solutions – and all at the same time as ensuring that an organisation’s commercial goals and objectives are achieved and that all is done in an ethically sound way. Typically the building service engineering installation is worth 30–40% of the total value of the completed building. Design management is not the same as project management. Project management focuses on a wider range of administrative skills but is not normally sympathetic to the peculiarities of delivering a fully coordinated functioning design, taking into account its unique nature and dealing with the changing requirements of clients and the external factors over which there is little control.
Execution: supervising the execution of the building services to ensure compliance with industry norms and standards, commissioning systems and ongoing maintenance and operation of services.
Environmental: developing new energy saving methods for construction, designing new and improved energy conservation systems for buildings.